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Putting DSEI on trial

DSEI ‘stallholder’

After what seems like a dozen separate court appearances for my small piece of resistance at the DSEI arms fair last September, District Judge John Zani today (31 May 2012) found me guilty of Criminal Damage at Westminster Magistrates Court.

Last September, at the entrance to the Defence & Security Equipment International arms fair I sprayed ‘Stop the Arms Trade’ and DSEI Kills’ as delegates queued to get in (read more here).

At the trial, which finally took place on 10th May (after numerous pre-trial reviews) I freely admitted what I had done but argued that it was justified because of the great harm caused by the arms trade and this arms fair in particular.  Using the legal defence of necessity (or duress of  circumstances) I argued that I was trying to prevent criminal activity.

I was greatly helped in this by the evidence of Oliver Sprague, arms control expert from Amnesty International, who laid out in detail breeches of export control laws that had taken place at previous DSEI arms fairs and the breeches that took place at the 2011arms fair (see his full witness statement here).

“In my view these are very serious breaches of our own legislation on arms export controls…  As previously noted, all of these weapons are now classified as Category A goods. These are reserved for the most serious of weapons, where there is essentially an absolute prohibition on their trade and use. The torture equipment and cluster bombs that were promoted at DSEI 2011 and in previous years rate alongside WMD in their seriousness in terms of current UK law in this area.”

Part of my own evidence & statement argued that:

“The UK is one of the largest producers and exports of arms and military equipment in the world.  Everything from machine guns to artillery, from military aircraft and ships, to bombs to bullets have been  - and are being exported, causing untold misery.   When challenged, the government argues that the proliferation of guns and other military equipment is a good thing  -  that it enables the vulnerable to be protected, it increases security and provides jobs. This is nonsense.   Anyone using the same argument  for selling guns in London for example, would simply be laughed out of court

There are controls on the export of arms – controls that have been long fought for by campaigners like myself and many others.  The controls however are regularly treated with virtual contempt.

There is so much corruption – at all levels – that principles of good governance and long-term security go out the window for the short term profit.  Just recently  we saw our Prime Minister – who has himself made speeches calling for democracy in the Middle East, and against the suppression of democracy movements –  on an arms sales visit to Saudi Arabia, perhaps one of the least desirable regimes  in the world.

Much of what goes on in the arms trade is secret and takes place behind closed doors with like accountability or transparency.   The arms fairs that take place are the visible tip of the iceberg.

We have heard evidence that there was in fact unlawful activity taking place at the DSEi arms fair as I acted.  We have heard evidence that unlawful activity has taken place previously at the DSEI arms fair.  We have heard evidence  that the UK authorities did not take any action to prevent this activity.

So I acted by trying as best I could in the circumstances to stop  this activity.

I think that given the massive amount of harm that is being done by the arms trade, given that laws that have been brought in to control the arms trade are being broken with virtual impunity, that it was reasonable in the circumstances to act in the way that I did.”

The trial ended with District Judge Zani saying he wanted to reserve his judgment ( in order to consider the legal arguments) and that we should reassemble on 31st May.

His Judgment today – which in essence states I had no lawful excuse in part becasue I could “not have known whether the activites of any of the stallholders at the fair might have contravened any export controls” – is here.

After some discussion about the number of my previous conviction,  and the fact that I had breached a conditional discharge for a similar ‘offense’  I was fined and ordered to pay costs and compensation to a total value of £1245. And so begins the next stage…..

Thanks to everyone for their support.

For more info on stopping the arms trade and the DSEI arms fair see:

Campaign Against Arms Trade

Stop the Arms Fair

East London Against the Arms Fair

————————- in memory of Mary Ann Ebert ———————–

Anti-Social Behaviour

At Downing St. with London Catholic Workers and Friends

As an anti-war activist I’ve seen my fair share of court rooms.  While appearing in court is never routine, Monday’s pre-trial hearing at Westminster Magistrate’s Court  should have been fairly straight forward; a chance to plead ‘not guilty’ and for the court to set a trial date for our action at Downing Street to mark ten years of war in Afghanistan.   An exception to the usual process was that my co-defendant, Fr Martin Newell, was in prison having being sentenced to 24 days in Pentonville prison for non-payment of a fine in relation to a previous anti-war action at Northwood.

However the ‘routine’ nature of the appearance was interrupted by the sudden appearance of two plain clothes policemen in the waiting room who announced they needed to talk to me in private and then promptly served papers on me saying that they intended to apply to the court for an anti-social behaviour order (ASBO).  The papers say that the terms of the order sought are as follows:

The defendant must not:

  1. Enter or be in the City of Westminster except while passing through as a passenger on the London Underground.
  2. Carry with you or be in possession of any can of spray paint, tin of paint, marker pen, chalk or charcoal in anyplace outside the city of Oxford.
  3. Carry with you of be in possession of bolt croppers in any place outside the city of Oxford.

For a period of 10 years.

The policemen said they would be serving more papers on me after Christmas and then promptly left.  I was a bit shocked to say the least and the court hearing was a bit of a blur.  As Martin wasn’t produced from prison a further court hearing was set for 9th January.

The papers served on me state that I have “acted in an anti-social manner, that is to say, in a manner that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress….”  That is of course  nonsense.   The behaviour cited in the papers – fourteen anti-war actions that I have taken part in since January 1991 -  have all been completely nonviolent and focused on resistance to war, nuclear weapons or the arms trade (14 actions in almost 21 years – not a particularly high rate either – much less that once a year).

In all the anti-war actions cited I have used paint – or sometimes charcoal – to expose what is happening at that location.  I have never been, I admit, particularly eloquent.  ‘The Arms Trade Kills’.  ‘Trident =Death’.  ‘Stop this bloody business’.  Again, not particularly poetic, but “liable to cause alarm or distress”?  I don’t  think so.

Since 1991 the UK’s armed forces have bombed, killed and tortured with seeming impunity in the so-called national interest.  Iraq and Afghanistan have been devastated, with communities destroyed and families ripped apart.  Thousands of civilians have been killed and millions injured.  Over the past twenty years too, billions of pounds have been wasted on the continued use, maintenance and development of new nuclear weapons  - which threaten to incinerate us all – while the UK’s arms industry thrives by researching and developing new and more lethal ways to slaughter people.

But seemingly it is me (and my spray can) that is the ‘anti-social’ one.

My wife, Virginia, works with people with learning disabilities and daily sees the impact of spending cuts on social care, not just in her area of work but to all aspect of our social services.  Along with our three children,  we have taken part, along with thousands of other families in campaigns to keep local libraries and swimming pools from being shut as part of the wider public spending cuts. Other members of our extended family and friends struggle with care for elderly relatives as, again, social services are being cut.  All the while our government continue to bail out the banks while letting large corporations off their tax payments.  But again I am the one that is being ‘anti-social’.

But I suppose the real reason I am being threatened with this ASBO is that for more than twenty years I have refused to accept the social order that we have.  I, along with countless others refuse to accept that violence and war is acceptable to defend ‘our’  lifestyle and ‘our’ interests.  I refuse to accept that the death of innocent men women and children is an acceptable price that we must pay in order to keep ‘our’ economic system going, and to keep ‘our’ oil flowing.  Rather than being consumed with The X-factor, ‘Strictly’ or Kate Middleton, (as we are encouraged to be) I am consumed with anger and outrage at what is being done in our name and in the name of ‘peace’.

It is accepted that in the name of some dubious ‘peace’ it is legitimate to spray bullets in Iraq and spill blood in Afghanistan.  I, on the other hand, have spilled paint on the Downing Street pavement and sprayed paint on the MoD walls.  Which behaviour do you think is really anti-social?

9/11 and the DSEI Arms Fair

Many people will be reflecting today, the tenth anniversary of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, on the decade of war we have had since that dreadful day.

On the day itself I was among about the hundreds of people taking part in a protest organised by CAAT outside the DSEi arms fair.  Many events were cancelled that day and in the following days and weeks.  Sports events, cultural events, political events, the UN Special session on Children, which I was had been doing some work around  -  all these we cancelled. The arms fair however,  continued.  More deals were signed and more arms contacts were made even in the light of that awful mass killing.

Whilst the fact that there was a major arms fair taking place in the UK at the very same time as this awful act of terrorism was something of a coincidence I think there are connection here.   I think there are real connections between for example, our proliferation of weaponry through the arms trade and our real insistence – despite all evidence to the contrary -  that world security is best served by an ever increasing ability to inflict death and destruction on others  – and that  desperate, awful, self-destructive act of mass violence.

I was really pleased to see that the leaders of the Free Churches in the UK had made a similar connection in a joint statement issued to commemorate the attacks.   It says in part:

It is clear that our reaction to the attacks on 9/11 has caused more suffering and loss than the original attacks. The ‘War on Terror’ has done little to make anyone safer, but has harmed human rights, depleted our coffers and damaged our standing in the world, and at a cost of many lives.

It is sad and ironic that regimes that seek to maintain their rule through military force have often purchased their weapons from Britain, such as Libya, which has purchased 120 million Euros worth of British arms since 2005.

Our government aspires to support democratic reform in the Middle East, but at the same time tax-payers’ money is being used to support the London Arms Fair, hosting 1,300 weapons companies from around the world.

There can be no future security if we place our trust in more sophisticated weapons.  We cannot rely on military intervention but must concentrate on supporting the principles of political progress, human security and economic justice if we are to achieve a better and more secure world for all.

For me, the best way to commemorate the 3,000 people who died in New York and Washington on 9/11 – and the thousands who have dies in the so-called ‘War on Terror’ since that day – is to go and disrupt the DSEI arms fair taking place again in London this week.  I hope to see you there.

Newbury Court Statement: It’s a Sin (and a Crime) to Build Nuclear Weapons

“Woe to those who call what is bad, good and what is good, bad.” (Isaiah 5:20)

On Friday 3rd September, along with Susan and Martin, I attended a talk given by Dr Peter Burt of the Nuclear Information Service at St John and St Stephen’s Church in Reading.  There I learned about  massive investment that was underway to develop the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston.

As someone who has been involved in peace campaigning for a long time I knew of course that AWE Aldermaston is the main centre for developing and building nuclear warheads in the UK.  I knew that the Trident nuclear programme depends on AWE to  design, test, build and maintain Britian’s nuclear warheads.  I knew that around 200 nuclear warheads were built at the site in the 1990s and that those nuclear weapons continue to be brought back to be tested and maintained.

From Dr Peter Burt however, I learned about the massive upgrade that is being undertaken at the site now and what is expected to happen at AWE over the next few years.   I learned about ‘Project Mensa’  the new warhead assembly building.  I learned about ‘Pegasus’ the new enriched uranium facility;  and  I learned about Project Hydrus, the proposed hydrodynamics research facility .

All these massive developments, I believe are in direct contravention of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty  and are also aimed at circumventing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.  The modernisation, updating and renewal of nuclear weapon systems  I believe is a material breach of nuclear  Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) obligations, particularly the unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapon states to “accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals leading to nuclear disarmament.”

Chris, Martin and Susan preparing to go to AWE Aldermaston

On Monday 6th September along with Susan and Martin – and as part of a Trident Ploughshares week of action -  I went to AWE to open the base up for ordinary people to begin the process of disarmament.  It seems very clear to me that ordinary people need themselves to begin the process of nuclear disarmament. We can no longer leave it in the hands of politicians or the military whose  so-called attempts at disarmament are, at best, shameful, at worst a sham.

As a Christian I believe all are called to be peacemakers.  There are many visions of peace in the scriptures but one that resonates with many today in our heavily militarised world is Isaiah’s vision of swords being beaten into ploughshares. And the passage is clear about who is to undertake the task. God does not beat swords into ploughshares.  Nor do kings, military commanders of politicians.  It is ordinary people who are given this great mission.

On 6th September Susan,  Martin and I cut the fence at Aldermaston to create a gateway and called on people to join in the great task of nonviolent peacemaking.  Thirty years previously, eight people had entered the King of Prussia nuclear weapon plant in Pennsylvania and undertook the first piece of direct nuclear disarmament and our action on 6th September were inspired by, and rejoiced in, that act of direct disarmament.

Having cut through the fence we attached a sign above saying ‘Open for Disarmament: All Welcome’ and we went through the breach we had created.  (A positive breach for disarmament in symbolic contrast to breach of the NPT.)  We hung a peace flag on the inner fence, held hands, prayed and sang.  Within a couple of minutes police arrived and we were quickly arrested.

And so here we are in court today.  We are charged that we damaged the fence, contrary to the Criminal Damage Act and trespassed or a ‘protected nuclear’ site, contrary to SOCPA Act.  I have stated that I cut the fence but I believe that  it was the right thing to do – that I have lawful excuse in that I was attempting to prevent what I belive to be a crime under international law, and God’s law.

As the court will be well aware S.3 of Criminal Law Act 1967 states that a person may use such force as is reasonable in the circumstances in the prevention of a crime. Ordinary citizens have a right – a duty indeed – to both uphold the law and to work for the common good.  What constitutes a crime is the focus of what I want to say here today.

In the recent past I and many others have attempted to challenge the crime of war and  preparing for nuclear war in the courts.  In all but the rarest of cases these attempts are thwarted.  And I know that the Prosecutor is right now reaching for a copy of the House of Lords decision from  March 2006,  in what is known as ‘R.v Jones’, where following a number of cases (and appeals) relating to peaceful resistance to war preparations, Lord Bingham ruled that

‘the crime against peace / crime of aggression [as it is labelled under international law] is not a crime in domestic law within the meaning of section 3 of the Criminal Law Act 1963’   (See paragraph 31)

In other words, the courts can  turn a blind eye to the massive conspiracy to threaten millions of people with extinction through nuclear war, simply by saying: sorry, actually that’s not a crime as we understand crime to be. Development, deployment and no doubt use of nuclear weapons, which cannot be anything but a war crime under international law -  as nuclear weapons are incapable of distinguishing between civilians and combatants -  will not be criminal according to the British courts.

But that is I’m afraid nonsense. It is of course morally, ethically and legally wrong to plan for and prepare for the indiscriminate murder of millions of people by developing, testing, building and deploying nuclear weapons.  That is a crime as any sane and reasonable person would judge.

In the Christian church, a crime against God and the common good is called a sin.  The Jesuit priest, Fr Richard McSorley stunned the Church at the height of the cold war by stating simply that it is a sin to build a nuclear weapon.  “The taproot of violence in our society today,” he wrote, “is our intent to use nuclear weapons. Once we have agreed to that, all other evil is minor in comparison.

Ignoring the crime of nuclear war preparations, giving legal sanction to what is perhaps the ultimate violence in our world today, undermines any condemnation of violence in our society. And the consequences of that sin are there for all to see, not least in the result of the theft from the poor of the huge amounts of resources that it takes to build these damn things.

Earlier this year I was sentenced to a months’s imprisonment for a similar piece of war resistance.  In prison I met and mixed with many people who were among the thousands of current and future victims of the crime of nuclear war preparations.  Those who, seeing the acceptability of violence in our society – indeed how violence is sanctified and gloried – had turned to it to as saviour. Imagine their shock when they find that it is a myth.  Violence does no save us or deliver us from evil.  Just the opposite in fact.  I’m sure this courtroom has seen any number of such victims

The three of us went to AWE Aldermaston to say as clearly as we could that the emperor has no clothes.  Nuclear weapons – mass violence – will not save us, bring us peace or security.   Rather our hope and our salvation lies in love of neighbour and working for the common good by following the way of nonviolence, the way of Christ.

Pretending something that is bad is good, will lead inexorably to trouble, said the prophet Isaiah some 3000 years ago.  Pretending that a crime is in fact lawful will similarly lead to trouble.  particularly such a heinous crime as the preparation of the mass murder of millions of people.  compounding that crime is the criminalization of those who attempt to expose the lie.

I urge the court to recognise the emperor has no clothes.  I urge the court to recognise the simple fact that planning and preparing for nuclear war is a crime.  I urge the court to uphold the fact that peacemakers have a duty to prevent such a crime and I urge the court to find us not guilty.

Chris Cole, May 2011.

“It’s just the way things are”

In 2009 the Defence & Security Equipment International (DSEI) exhibition was due to hold its bi-annual arms selling jamboree in East London, opening with a conference at the Queen Elizabeth Conference centre in central London. According to its official brochure, the aim of the ‘UK Defence Conference 2009 ’ was to bring together “senior officials from the arms industry, the military and the UK government” to “explore the business opportunities” to be found  in “global security threats such as climate change, major population movements, growing water scarcity, competition for energy sources and the continued rise of Islamism.”  Here then, was another opportunity to confront the UK’s military-industrial complex as it gathered together at the beginning of their week-long arms spree.

So with spray can in hand I went to the conference centre just before the event and sprayed ‘build peace not war machines’ ‘stop this bloody business’ and ‘arms trade=death’ on the front entrance and poured fake blood over the steps.    (See CCTV footage  here).  I was shortly convicted of criminal damage and fined just under £2,000. Eighteen months (and numerous court letters, bailiffs threats and visits) later it’s time to go back to court to explain my actions and why I won’t pay the fine.

As a committed Christian peace activist I’ve been researching into, speaking about, and resisting the arms industry for over twenty years now. No matter how many times I think I’ve seen it all, another corruption story,  new deal,  or yet another lethal technological development will come along to shock me.  Over the years I have had private conversations with senior arm company executives and I’ve engaged in public debates with their PR people. I’ve written thousands of words in newsletter, magazines, briefings and on websites.  I’ve  spoke at countless meetings and I’ve taken part in more vigils, protests and nonviolent demonstrations that I can possibly remember.  I’ve also been arrested, spied upon, injuncted and imprisoned. I have no illusions about the power that the ‘defence’ industry can wield nor the depths it will stoop to make its profit or to promote the ideology of ‘might is right’.   But I continue to undertake nonviolent action against the arms dealers.

So what is the point of such a small scale piece of direct action that hardly disrupts the smooth running of the monolithic arms industry?  What is the point of going through all the hassle of courts, fines, bailiffs and prison?  What possible difference does it make and in what way does it help the victims of the arms industry? 

For me the point of nonviolent direct action (as well as the court and prison witness that follows) is to dramatize the choice that we as a society are making.  In the Christian tradition this choice is summed up in the ancient Book of Deuteronomy ‘I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses. Now choose life, so that you and your children may live’ (Deut 30:19) 

Nonviolent direct action is about trying to make visible the choices that we are making – or that are being made on our behalf – and articulating the fact that there is an alternative.  A classic example of this type of confrontation would perhaps be Rosa Parks’ refusal to give up her bus seat to a white man in 1955. That direct confrontation with the Power of institutional racism in a concrete situation produced a wider circumstance of choice – the Montgomery Bus Boycott – where people had to choose to side with the Power (a Power which insisted that there was no choice, this is just the way things are and always will be) or to stand against racism and on the side of equality and life.

In a similar way, the powers that be tell us that there is no choice with regard to peace and security in our world.  The only realistic way to achieve peace and security,  they say, is through the gun, the drone and the nuclear deterrent. “It’s the way things are and always will be ” is the cry, and I have heard it from school boys in the classroom, from CEO’s in the boardroom, and politicians in the parliamentary committee room.  The powers have managed to convince us that armed force is our salvation, that in bomb we must trust.   But of course, that is nonsense. As we have seen clearly over the past twenty years of war in Iraq and Afghanistan in the so-called war on terror, armed force does not bring peace to the world nor defend the widow and the orphan  – in fact, just the opposite. 

There is, of course, an alternative to armed violence:  justice.   As the prophet Isaiah said around 2,750 years ago, “Integrity will be bring peace, justice give everlasting security’ (Isa. 32:17)   By tackling the root causes of injustice around the world, like the situation of Palestine for example, we can address some of the real drivers of insecurity in the world.  Instead of pouring resources into more lethal ways to kill each other, we need to be addressing global inequality by devoting resources to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and helping to achieve political and economic rights for all human beings and communities.   Perhaps most importantly of all, we need to be educating our fellow citizens to understand that our future security depends on global welfare and the common good rather than self-interest and national prosperity  

So I return to court tomorrow with the possibly of a prison sentence to follow.  Cynics will say of course that it is a waste of time.  My direct action at the DSEI opening conference in 2009 did not stop the arms fair from happening nor more arms deals being made.  But the lie that is ‘this is just the way things are and always will be’,  the pretence that there is no alternative, was exposed.  Conference delegates, arms company employees, security guards, court officials, passers-by, friends, neighbours and readers of this very article all have a choice to make:  to choose to support on the one hand, the arms trade, national self-interest, militarism, injustice, violence or on the other peaceful resistance, community, justice and the common good.

Just as Rosa Parks and the bus boycott used the racist transport system to expose and challenge institutional racism let’s use London’s DSEI arms fair – which will be held once again in London this coming September – to expose the corruption, injustice and lethality of war, the arms trade and the ideology of ‘might is right’.

Faith, Hope and Persistence

I spent most of yesterday, the feast of the Epiphany, in Newbury Magistrates Court  waiting to plead ‘not guilty’ to charges of criminal damage and criminal trespass following a peace witness at the Aldermaston Atomic Weapons Establishment in September

It was a strange day – not least because the MoD police had forgotten to bring the paperwork, statements etc. and so we had to wait around the court for hours for the papers to arrive.  But the day for me was also about remembering my ploughshares action on the Feast of the Epiphany exactly eighteen years ago.  In my statement left at the scene of disarmed BAE weapons systems, I said “The Epiphany remembers when three men presented gifts to the infant Jesus. My gift of disarmament is for all the infants who are threatened with BAe weapons, from Northern Ireland to East Timor.”  Eighteen years later and, thank God, the children of Northern Ireland and East Timor do sleep more safely in their beds but of course other children are desperately threatened, not least by the nuclear warheads built and tested at AWE Aldermaston and the lethal weapons that BAE Systems continues to develop and ply around the world.

So the question could be asked – and I’ve been asked it many times – what does NVDA achieve?  Is there any point to spending hours and days hanging around courts, not to mention the weeks and months spent in prison?  Susan Clarkson one of my fellow defendants this week, reminded me of Ammon Hennacy’s reply when asked what effect his NVDA had on the world,  “I’m not trying to change the world”, he said “I’m trying to stop the world from changing me”.  And for me there is an element of undertaking resistance that is about not to being  ‘conformed to the world.’

But, as Fellowship of Reconciliation member Margaret Mead said “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.”  That’s not to say it’s easy – far from it – and it’s hard to see how any specific ‘action’ or piece of work (or blog post!) does make a specific difference.  Nevertheless actions, and work and people resisting injustice together make up a movement and movements do  make a difference.   It may be mostly about faith and hope, but also, as one of the one of the great unsung heroes of the 20th Century nonviolence movement, James Lawson,  would say, it’s also a question of persistence…..

So here’s to another eighteen years of faith, hope and persistence.

Peace in our time? Let’s be incredible!

A few weeks agao I was asked to write a short article on the need to be prophetic for the ‘Peace in 21st Century’ newsletter.  Here’s the result!

Over the past five years the Fellowship of Reconciliation has focused on two specific areas of militarism- the arms trade and more recently, the growing use of armed drones. We have chosen to focus our energies on these issues for a variety of reasons, but perhaps the single most important reason is that working on these issues allows us to speak about the wider issues of how we are to live together in our world today. I’m not for a moment suggesting that our campaigning on these issues is not sincere. Rather, we campaign on these issues because it allows us to speak about the sacredness of life, global security, justice, what it means to be aChristian and how we can build “a world order based on love”1 as well as the specifics of the arms trade or armed drones.

 

Pressure

Increasingly however there has been a pressure not to speak about those wider things. Increasingly there hasbeen pressure – from funders, from the media, from sister organisations – to be realistic and to focus on ‘what can be achieved’. To me, over the past ten years or so there has been a real shift away from speaking about the big picture – for us war and peace – to focusing instead on small, narrow  realistically achievable’ aims.

 This is in part, I believe, a reaction to New Labour phenomenon of ‘targets’ and ‘measurable outcomes’.Whilst this way of thinking has brought an important rigour to work for global change, it seems that it has also brought rigidity. While it’s very important that we ground ourselves in reality, its equally important that we be unrealistic. By that I mean, of course, that we be prophetic.

 In relation to the arms trade for example, there are many good organisations, not least Oxfam and Amnesty International, who are campaigning on the issue. However they will not call for an end to the arms trade itself, not because they do not believe that would be a good thing, rather because it is not realistically achievable in the short-term. They feel, I believe, that to make such a call would lose them credibility with those in power, and they would not be able to report a ‘success’ to their funders and donors. Far more credible, it seems, to call for reform and regulation of the arms trade, rather than an end to the practise itself.

 Christian peacemakers too face this crisis in credibility. In order to be a player in the political game, credibilityis extremely important and believing and working for an end to war in our world today is literally incredible.

 Prophetic

However our calling as Christians and peacemakers is not to be credible in the eyes of the world, but tobe prophetic. Our calling is to speak about the division and alienation in the world – what we would term sin – and how we can overcome that sin by loving God and loving our neighbour.

 There is of course much more to say about this state of affairs but in the short space that I have I would want to make two brief comments.

 Firstly, as Christians we are working to a different understanding of time and time-scales than the world. We know that the principalities and powers have been defeated by the Prince of Peace but it has yet to work itself out in history. Also in relation to time, we, as a community of peacemakers, are part of a movement that stretches itself way back in time and way forward into the future. Our work for peace and justice must have an understanding of that view of time. I am saddened by people who expect – and are then subsequently disappointed – when ‘peace’ is not achieved after a particular campaign, or event or witness.

 Our work for peace is the work of our lifetime. Indeed we could say that the work for peace is thework of time itself. We long for the ending of time and the coming of the eschaton2 and our daily work for peace must be seen in that light and not in an effort to gain worldly credibility.

 Idolatry

Secondly, as Christians, we know who it is who will bring peace. It is not us and our work alone thatwill be effective in ending war, violence and conflict. Our human tactics, lobbying and strategising, our organisations and campaigns are created by imperfect fallible, sinful human beings. Our work for peace and reconciliation must be inspired by the Holy Spirit through being rooted in prayer. However we must be careful here. It is not faithful in any way, I believe, to be completely disinterested in the effects of our work.

 We must simply not make effectiveness into an idol. As Daniel Berrigan said “The good is to be done becauseit is good, not because it goes anywhere.” As Christian peacemakers we may sometimes (often!) be out of step with how the world sees peace and seeks peace. I believe that our calling is to be prophetic and to witness to the peace of Christ rather than to be realistic and seek peace in the world’s terms.

 Chris Cole.

Chris Cole has recently stepped down as the Director of the Fellowship of Reconciliation. He will continue to campaign, write and act for peace. For more details see http://www.figtree.org.uk.

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